What is taurine?

Taurine (/ˈtɔːriːn/), or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues.

What are the side effects of taurine?

When consumed in reasonable amounts by a healthy individual, taurine doesn’t have any known side effects. Still, it may interact with certain drugs, so consult your doctor before taking taurine if you’re taking any medications. ). ). ). The easiest and most cost-effective way to reach this dosage is through powder or capsule supplements.

Is taurine a constituent of mitochondrial tRNAs?

Taurine as a constituent of mitochondrial tRNAs: new insights into the functions of taurine and human mitochondrial diseases. The EMBO Journal. 21 (23): 6581–9. doi: 10.1093/emboj/cdf656. PMC 136959.

What is the zwitterion for taurine?

Taurine exists near pH 7 as the zwitterion H 3N +CH 2CH 2SO 3 −. It is essential for cardiovascular function and development and function of skeletal muscle, the retina, and the central nervous system. Taurine is a biosynthetic precursor to the bile salts sodium taurochenodeoxycholate and sodium taurocholate.

What is taurine and why is it important?

Taurine is a type of chemical called an amino sulfonic acid. It occurs naturally in the body. The best food sources are meat, fish, and eggs. Taurine has important functions in the heartand brain. It helps support nerve growth. It might also benefit people with heart failureby lowering blood pressureand calming the nervous system.

Is taurine an acid or a base?

Taurine is unusual among biological molecules in being a sulfonic acid, while the vast majority of biologically occurring acids contain the more weakly acidic carboxyl group.

How is taurine made in the laboratory?

In the laboratory taurine can be produced by alkylation of ammonia with bromoethanesulfonate salts. Taurine is naturally derived from cysteine. Mammalian taurine synthesis occurs in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway. In this pathway, cysteine is first oxidized to its sulfinic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase.

What is taurine in energy drinks?

Taurine is a common additive to energy drinks, which are often promoted as such. Taurine is an unusual example of a naturally occurring sulfonic acid. It exists as a zwitterion H 3N +CH 2CH 2SO 3 -, as verified by X-ray crystallography.

How does taurine protect mitochondria from superoxide?

While recent studies have suggested that the prevention of superoxide in the mitochondria is linked to the taurine conjugation of the mitochondrial tRNA [ 28, 82, 84, 147 ], several studies have shown that taurine may exert its antioxidant function via different mechanisms.

Does taurine conjugate with mitochondrial tRNA Leu?

Studies conducted by Suzuki and colleagues have shown that taurine conjugates with mitochondrial tRNA Leu (UUR) or tRNA Lys (UUU) for proper codon–anticodon interaction to facilitate synthesis of mitochondrial-encoded proteins.

Is taurine a cytoprotective agent with multiple physiological functions?

All these studies clearly demonstrated the importance of taurine as a cytoprotective agent with multiple physiological functions. Recently, increasing studies have focused on the antioxidant role of taurine in maintaining mitochondrial function. 5.

What is taurine found in?

Taurine is a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid that is found abundantly in excitatory tissues, such as the heart, brain, retina and skeletal muscles. Taurine was first isolated in the 1800s, but not much was known about this molecule until the 1990s.

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